Stainless steel is an extremely popular and widely used material. It essentially comes under a family of iron-based alloys that features about 11% chromium in its composition that provides it with heat resistant properties and prevents the iron from rusting. Stainless Steel Flanges, pipes, utensils and a range of other objects can easily be found in the market.

Stainless Steel Price Per Kg

Stainless Steel Price per kgOriginPrice in INR
(per kg)
Price in USD
(per kg)
Price in Euro
(per kg)
SS Price per kg in IndiaIndianRs 195/-$2.85€2.43
SS Price per kg in JapanJapaneseRs 250/-$3.65€3.12
SS Price per kg in UK / EuropeEuropeanRs 300/-$4.38€3.74
SS Material Price per kg in USAUSARs 350/-$5€4.37

Please note: Price is subject to change without any prior notice.

Stainless steel is known to be also resistant to ferric oxide formation due to the presence of chromium in its composition, particularly the propensity of the exposed chromium atoms when it comes to forming an “adherent and invisible chromium-rich oxide film” that displayed the feature of being able to successfully self-heal. This self-healing refers to reforming the film after it has been disturbed, in the presence of atmospheric oxygen. The corrosion resistance capacity of stainless steel can be modified further by making certain modifications to its content, such as: 

  • An addition of 8% or higher amounts of nickel
  • Augmenting the chromium content to levels more than 11%
  • Addition of molybdenum that aids in improving resistance to “pitting corrosion”

 

Apart from the above-mentioned elements, the addition of nitrogen can also help in improving resistance to pitting corrosion and augmenting mechanical strength. As a result, there are several grades of stainless steel with varying levels of molybdenum and chromium content so as to suit the environments that this iron-based alloy must endure.

There are a number of environments where the high strength of steel and corrosion resistance capacity is needed, and in such scenarios stainless steel enjoys a great application due to its high resistance to corrosion and staining, familiar luster and low-maintenance requirements.  Stainless steel can additionally be rolled into bars, wires, tubing, plates, and sheets. These are typically used in surgical instruments, cookware, major appliances, industrial equipment, cutlery, as well as a construction material in large buildings. Stainless steel also is used for storage tanks and tankers that are meant for food and chemical products. Stainless steel pipes and fittings are especially quite popularly used in a variety of applications.

There are many factors that have prompted the usage of stainless steel in food processing plants and kitchens, some of the major ones being its corrosion resistance, absence of the need for surface coatings, as well as the ease with which the material can be sterilized and steam-cleaned.

General Properties of Stainless Steel

  • Aesthetics: It has a number of surface finishes, right from bright and engraved to brushed and matt. Stainless steel can be both tinted and embossed. Its wide range of surface finishes makes it a highly aesthetic material and is commonly used by architects for urban furniture and interior design.
  • Mechanical properties: The mechanical properties of steel are extremely high at ambient temperatures in comparison to many other materials. It is known to combine hardness, elasticity, and ductility, and hence is ideal for use in a variety of difficult metal forming modes, while also providing high resistance to heavy wear.
  • Resistance to fire: When it comes to being used in structural applications that involve elevated temperatures above 800°C, stainless steel is known to have the best fire resistance among the various types of metallic materials.
  • Corrosion resistance: Having a minimum chromium content of 10.5, this iron-based alloy is protected continuously by a passive layer of chromium oxide that is known to form naturally on its surface through the combination of moisture in the air and chromium. This layer has the capacity to regenerate itself in case the surface is scratched. This element, in particular, provides stainless steel its great corrosion resistance.
  • Cleanability: Items made up of stainless steel are extremely easy to clean. The common cleaning products like soap powders and detergents tend to be sufficient for cleaning them and does not cause damage to its surface. Stainless steel is known to hence fulfill requirements in domains like cooking utensils and decoration, which need both frequent and effective washing.

In addition to the features mentioned above, the process of work hardening can make cold-formed austenitic stainless steels a bit magnetic. In certain cases when austenitic steel is cut or bent, it creates a distinct magnetism along the edge of the stainless steel as the crystal structure rearranges itself.

Stainless Steel Composition

MaterialGrades SuppliedMain featuresAdvantagesDisadvantages
Austenitic Steel with Manganese201
  • Non-magnetic*
  • Low Carbon
  • Main alloying element is chromium, typically 16-20%
  • Nickel typically 7-13%
  • Strengthens significantly during cold working
  • Good weldability
  • High strength and ductility
  • Cannot be hardened by heat treatment
  • Low stress corrosion cracking resistance
Austenitics301, 304L, 304, 305, 320, 321, 347,
Austenitic Steel with Molybdenum316, 316L, 316Ti, 904L
Ferritics409, 410S, 430, 430L, 430Ti (439), 441, 444
  • Magnetic
  • Low Carbon
  • Main alloying element is chromium, typically 10.5-17%
  • Good formability
  • Low cost
  • Good stress corrosion cracking resistance
  • Moderate ductility
  • Limited corrosion resistance
  • Cannot be hardened by heat treatment
Martensitics410, 420, 431
  • Can be magnetic or non-magnetic
  • Low Carbon
  • Main alloying element is chromium, typically 12 to 15%, molybdenum (0.2-1%)
  • Hardened by quenching and tempered to give improved toughness and ductility
  • Less resistant to corrosion compared to Austenitic and Ferritic grades.
  • Limited formability and welding capabilities
Precipitation hardening17/4PH, 17/7PH
  • Contains Aluminium or Copper
  • High work hardening rates
  • Very high strengths
  • Better Corrosion resistance compared to martensitics
  • Limited availability
  • Lower corrosion resistance, formability and weldability compared to austenitics
Duplex309, 310
  • Magnetic
  • Low Carbon
  • Combined Austenitic-Ferritic structure
  • Chromium typically 21-26%
  • Nickel typically 3.5-6.5%
  • Superior tensile strength in annealed condition
  • Good corrosion and pitting resistance
  • Lighter weight
  • Lower cost due to lower Nickel content
  • Cannot be hardened by heat treatment, but offers higher annealed strength levels than Ferritic or Austenitic grades
  • Restricted application temperature range when compared to Austenitics
* cold working of the less alloyed grades will induce structural changes leading to increased levels of magnetism.
**Super Austenitics, Super Ferritic and Super Duplexes are available by request

Joining stainless steels

There are a variety of processes that are used readily in order to join stainless steel. These processes include:

  • Plasma arc welding
  • Flux-cored arc welding
  • Shielded metal arc welding (covered electrode)
  • Submerged arc welding
  • Gas metal arc welding also is known as metal inert gas (MIG} welding
  • Gas tungsten arc welding also is known as tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding

 

Galling, a process that is at times referred to as cold welding, is basically a form of severe adhesive wear that usually occurs when two metal surfaces are under heavy pressure and in relative motion to each other. Austenitic stainless steel fasteners are popular for being especially susceptible to thread galling. 

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